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Country Summary for BOTSWANA

I.  Relevant Legislation
II.  Regulated Cultural Property


'Ancient Monument'—any building, ruin, remaining portion of a building or ruin, ancient working, stone circle, grave, cave, rock shelter, midden, shell mound, archaeological site, or other site or thing of a similar kind, which is known or believed to have been erected, constructed or used in Botswana before June 1, 1902.

'Monument' includes—
(a) any ancient monument;
(b) any recent historic monument
(c) any area of land which is of archaeological or historical interest or contains objects of such interest.
'National Monument'—a monument, recent artifact, or relic which has been declared a national monument under §10.
'Owner'—the owner, lessee, or other lawful possessor of any national monument, monument, recent artifact, relic, or protected heritage area, or the land within or on which they are situated.
'Recent Artifact'—any drawing, painting, carving, ornament, implement, stone tool, bone pottery, or any other artifact, of national value, that were made or used in Botswana after June 1, 1902, and which has been declared as such under §11.
'Recent Historic Monument’—any structure of national value, which was erected, constructed or used in Botswana after June 1, 1902, which structure has been declared a recent historic monument under §11 and includes any building declared an historic building under §11;
(a) fossil;
(b) meteorite;
(c) drawing, painting or carving on stone or petroglyph executed I Botswana before 1st June, 1902;
(d) artifact, implement or ornament of aesthetic, archaeological, anthropological, historical or scientific value made or used in Botswana before 1st June, 1902;
(e) any stone tool, bone, pottery or any other anthropological or archaeological contents of any ancient monument or ancient working; or
(f) any treasure trove discovered in Botswana. (MRA §2, selected definitions)

The Commissioner shall:
(g) compile a register of all national monuments, recent historic monuments, recent artifacts, protected heritage areas and of such other monuments or relics as have been brought to his notice;
(h) compile a register of all national monuments, monuments, relics, recent artifacts or proposed heritage areas which have been acquired for the State. (MRA §8)

III.  Export Restrictions

IV.  Ownership Rights and Restrictions

V.  Violations, Penalties and Sanctions

VI.  International Conventions and Bilateral Agreements
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Country Contact
for Cultural Property
Mr. Gaogakwe Phorano
National Museum, Monuments and Art Gallery
Private Bag 00114
Gaborone, Botswana
Ph: 267-3974-616
F: 267-3902-797

Monica Selelo
Head of Visual Arts
Ministry of Youth Empowerment, Sport and Culture Development

Tel; 267 3951929

Phillip Segadika
Chief Curator Archaeology
Department of Culture and Youth
Private Bag 00185
Gaborone, Botswana Ph: 267-3909-222
F: 267-3909-227