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Country Summary for EGYPT

I.  Relevant Legislation
II.  Regulated Cultural Property


“Antiquity”any real-estate or chattel that meets the following conditions:
(1) It is the product of Egyptian civilization or the successive civilizations or the creation of art, sciences, literature or religions that took place on the Egyptian lands since the pre-historic ages and during the successive historic ages up to 100 years ago;
(2) It has archaeological or artistic value or historical importance as an aspect of Egyptian civilization or any other civilization that existed on Egyptian lands;
(3)It was produced and grew up on Egyptian lands and has a historical relation thereto. Also human and animal mummies are considered like any antiquity that is registered in accordance with this Law. (2010 APL Art. 1)

The Prime Minister, following recommendation by the Competent Minister of Cultural Affairs, may consider as an antiquity any immovable or movable property of historical, scientific, religious, artistic, or literary value. (2010 APL Art. 2)

Registry of Movable Property

As of March 2010, anyone in possession of an archaeological object must notify the [Egyptian Antiquities] Council of such object within six months. Such persons are required to preserve such objects until the Council registers it. (2010 APL Art. 8)

Registry of Immovable Property

Antiquities shall be registered by decision of the minister responsible for cultural affairs acting at the recommendation of the Board of Directors of the Organization. The decision by which an immoeable antiquity is registered shall be duly communicated to the owner…and shall be published in the Official Gazette. (2010 APL Art. 12)

III.  Export Restrictions

IV.  Ownership Rights and Restrictions

V.  Violations, Penalties and Sanctions

VI.  International Conventions and Bilateral Agreements
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Country Contact
for Cultural Property
Dr. Mohamed Ibrahim
Minister of State for Antiquities
Supreme Council of Antiquities
3 El-Adel Abu Bakr St.
Zamalek, Cairo, Egypt
Ph: +20 02-2736-5645
F: +20 02-2735-7239

Relevant U.S. Case Law