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Country Summary for GREECE

I.  Relevant Legislation
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II.  Regulated Cultural Property

Definitions

'Monuments'—cultural objects which constitute material testimonies and belong to the cultural heritage of the country and which deserve special protection on the basis of the following distinctions:

'Ancient monuments or antiquities'— all cultural objects dating back to prehistoric, ancient, Byzantine and post-Byzantine times up to 1830, subject to the provisions of Art. 20 [of this law, dealing with the classification of movables].  

'Archaeological monuments'—include caves and palaeontological remains, for which there is evidence that they are related to human existence.

'Recent monuments'—cultural objects dating after 1830, which deserve protection due to historical, artistic or scientific significance, in accordance with the distinctions of Art. 20 [of this law]. 

'Immovable monuments'—monuments that have been attached to, and remain on the ground or on the seabed or on the bed of lakes or rivers, as well as monuments which are found on the ground or on the seabed or on the bed of lakes or rivers and cannot be removed without damage to their value as testimonies.  Immovable monuments shall also include installations, structures and the decorative and other elements, which form an integral part of the monuments, as well as their surroundings. Classification of an immovable monument may include movables that are related to a certain use of the immovable, uses compatible with its character as a monument, as well as its surroundings or its elements. (2002 PACH, Art. 6(2))

'Movable monuments'—monuments that are not “immovables.” (2002 PACH, Art. 2 (b)(i)-(iv)) Movable monuments shall include:
(a) monuments dating up to 1453;
(b) monuments dating after 1453 and up to 1830 which constitute finds from excavations or other archaeological research, or have been removed from immovable monuments, as well as icons and other religious objects used for worship, dating from the same period;
(c) monuments dating after 1453 and up to 1830 which are not subject to subparagraph (b) and are classified as monuments due to their social, technical, folk, ethnological, artistic, architectural, industrial or in general historical or scientific significance;
(d) recent cultural objects less than one-hundred years old which are classified as monuments due to their social, technical, folk, ethnological or in general historical, artistic, architectural, industrial or scientific significance;
(e) recent cultural objects less than one-hundred years old which are classified as monuments due to their particular social, technical, folk, ethnological or in general historic, artistic, architectural, industrial or scientific significance. (2002 PACH, Art. 20 (a)-(e))

Ancient moveable monuments referred to in paragraphs 1(a) and 1(b) [of Art. 20 of this law] are protected by law, without need for the issuance of any administrative act. Cultural objects referred to in paras. 1(c), 1(d), and 1(e) shall be classified as monuments by a decision of the Minister of Culture, issued following a recommendation of the Service and an opinion of the Council [defined in Arts. 49-51 of this law] and published in the Official Gazette. (2002 PACH, Art. 20 (2))

An antique dealer is a person who systematically acquires possession or ownership of movable monuments which have been legally acquired for the purpose of further transferring them or mediates in the transfer of their possession or ownership.  A merchant of recent movable monuments is the person who systematically acquires ownership of recent movable monuments which have been legally acquired for the purpose of their further transfer or mediates in their transfer.  For the exercise of these activities a special permit shall be required. (2002 PACH, Art. 32 (1))

Registry

The monuments shall be recorded, documented and registered in the National Inventory of Monuments, which shall be kept at the Ministry of Culture. (2002 PACH, Art. 4(1))


III.  Export Restrictions
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IV.  Ownership Rights and Restrictions
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V.  Violations, Penalties and Sanctions
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VI.  International Conventions and Bilateral Agreements
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Country Contact
for Cultural Property
Dr. Korka Eleni
Director
General Directorate of Antiquities
Hellenic Ministry of Culture and Sports
20-22 Bouboulinas Street
106 82 Athens, Greece ekorka@culture.gr
gda@culture.gr

www.yppo.gr
Ph: +30 213-132-2666
F: +30 210-820-1420