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Country Summary for TURKEY

I.  Relevant Legislation
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II.  Regulated Cultural Property

Definitions

“Conservation” means operations the preservation, maintenance, repair, restoration and improving or changing the function of immoveable cultural or natural property or maintenance and restoration of moveable cultural property. (CCNP, Art. 3.4)

 


Moveable cultural and natural properties to be conserved include:

-all kinds of cultural and natural properties that belong to geological, prehistoric, or historic periods that have documentary significance in terms of geology, anthropology, prehistory, archaeology or art history reflecting the social, cultural technical, and scientific characteristics and levels of their periods;
and

     -all kinds of animal or plant fossils, human skeletons, flints (sleeeks) obsidians, all kinds of bone or metallic tools encaustic tile, ceramic, similar pots and pans, statues, figures, tablets, cutter, defender and striking weapons, icons, glass objects, ornaments, ring stones, earrings, needles, hooks, seals, bracelets and similar things, masks, diadems, leather, cloth, papyrus, documents written or depicted on parchment or metal, scales, coins, written or stamped slabs, handwritten or gilded books, miniatures, engravings which have artistic value, oil paint or water color paintings, relics, medallions, soil, glass, wood, cloth and similar moveable heritage and their pieces.  (CCNP, Art. 23 (a))

“Cultural Properties” are all moveable and immoveable scientific and cultural authentic properties above, underground, or underwater that belong to the pre-historic and historic periods related to science, culture, religion and fine arts or have been subject to social life. (CCNP, Art. 3.1)

“Immoveable Cultural Properties” means immoveable properties above, underground, or underwater that belong to the geological prehistoric and historic periods and are related to science, culture, religion or fine arts. (DRCNP, Art. 3)

“Immoveable Natural Properties” means immoveable properties above, underground, or underwater that belong to the geological prehistoric and historic periods and deserve to be conserved due to their uniqueness, characteristics, or beauty. (DRCNP, Art. 3)

“Ministry” means Ministry of Culture. (DRCNP, Art. 3)

“Sites” are areas that reflect civilizations from the prehistoric period to the present and that involve towns (or remains of towns) reflecting the social, economic, architectural or other qualities of their era; places that have been subject to social life where intensive cultural properties are present; or places where significant historic events have taken place which are designated to be conserved for natural characteristics. (CCNP, Art. 3.3)

“Urban site” means any site where cultural and natural environmental elements having architectural, local, historical, aesthetic, and artistic characteristics are located together (buildings, gardens, plants, settlements, walls). (CCNP, Art. 3.3)

“Historical site” means any site where significant historical events have taken place. (DRCNP, Art. 3)

“Archeological site” means any site where ruins of an ancient settlement or an old civilization have been found or sites known or found underwater. (DRCNP, Art. 3)

“Natural Site” means sites and immoveable natural properties having interesting characteristic and beauties rarely found. (DRCNP, Art. 3)

“Registration” means immoveable cultural and natural properties designated by the conservation council. (DRCNP, Art. 3)

Registry

Moveable cultural and natural properties reported to the Ministry according to Article 4 of this law [Imperative Notification] and moveable and natural cultural properties to be conserved are subject to listing and registration. Those that are deemed necessary to be kept in state museums are hence acquired by the Museums in a proper way. (CCNP, Art. 25.1)

The following documents are to be prepared as the basis of registration:

1-registration form;

2-photographs

a) For monuments, photographs showing interior and exterior and surroundings of monument;

b) For archeological, urban, natural sites, detailed photographs, including panoramic photographs taken in order to perceive site completely and cultural and natural properties and small findings;

3-diapositives prepared for study;

4-map or plan showing border and location of monument;

5-report including opinion of the determination team describing immoveable cultural and natural properties and immoveable cultural properties to be proposed for conservation; and

6-other documents considered necessary by the determination team. (DRCNP, Art. 5)


III.  Export Restrictions
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IV.  Ownership Rights and Restrictions
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V.  Violations, Penalties and Sanctions
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VI.  International Conventions and Bilateral Agreements
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Country Contact
for Cultural Property
Dr. Orhan Düzgün
Director General
Directorate General for Cultural Heritage and Museums
Ministry of Cultura and Tourism
II. Meclis Binasi
06100 Ulus, Ankara, Turkey Tel. +90312-310- 4960
Fax: +90312-311-1417