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Country Summary for UNITED KINGDOM

I.  Relevant Legislation
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II.  Regulated Cultural Property

Definitions

Under the 2003 DCOA
Cultural object means an object of historical, architectural or archaeological interest.  

A cultural object is tainted if, after the commencement of [the 2003 DCOA] -
a) a person removes the object [from a building or structure of historical, architectural or archaeological interest where the object has at any time formed part of the building or structure or it is removed from a monument of such interest] or he excavates the object, and
b) the removal or excavation constitutes an offence.

Monument means -
     (a)  Any work, cave or excavation,
     (b)  Any site comprising the remains of any building or structure or of any work, cave or excavation,
     (c)  Any site comprising, or comprising the remains of, any vehicle, vessel, aircraft or other movable structure, of part of any such thing.

Deals in means -
 A person deals in an object if and only if he -
a) acquires, disposes of, imports or exports it,
b) agrees with another to do an act mentioned in paragraph (a), or
c) makes arrangements under which another person does such an act or under which another person agrees with a third person to do such an act.
(2003 DCOA, Arts. 2, 3, selected definitions)

Under the 2003 Export Control Act
Embargoed destination means a destination to which an export ban applies by virtue of a prohibition contained in legislation implementing European Union obligations or United Nations sanctions. (2003 Export Control, § 7).

Under the 1996 Treasure Act
Treasure is -
a) Any object at least 300 years old when found which -
(i) is not a coin but has metallic content of which at least 10 per cent by weight is precious metal;
(ii) when found, is one of at least two coins in the same find which are at least 300 years old at that time and have that percentage of precious metal, or
(iii) when found, is one of at least ten coins in the same find which are at least 300 years old at that time;
b) Any object at least 200 years old when found which belongs to a class … [designated by the Secretary of State];
c) Any object which would have been treasure trove if found before the commencement of [the 1996 Treasure Act] ….

Treasure does not include objects which are unworked natural objects or minerals as extracted from a natural deposit ….
(1996 Treasure Act, § 1, selected portions)

Under the 2003 Iraq Order
“Illegally removed Iraqi cultural property” means Iraqi cultural property and any other item of archaeological, historical, cultural, rare scientific or religious importance illegally removed from any location in Iraq since August 6th, 1990. It is immaterial whether the removal was illegal under the law of a part of the United Kingdom or any other country or territory. (2003 Iraq Order, Art. 8(4))


III.  Export Restrictions
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IV.  Ownership Rights and Restrictions
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V.  Violations, Penalties and Sanctions
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VI.  International Conventions and Bilateral Agreements
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Country Contact
for Cultural Property
Mr. James Pender
Head of Cultural Property
Department for Culture, Media and Sport
100 Parliament St.
London
SW1A 2BQ james.pender@culture.gsi.gov.uk
www.culture.gov.uk
Tel. 00 44 (0)207 211 6941
Fax. 00 44 (0)207 211 6130

Mr. Mark Caldon
Department for Culture, Media and Sport
100 Parliament St.
London
SW1A 2BQ mark.caldon@culture.gsi.gov.uk
www.culture.gov.uk
Tel. 00 44 (0)207 211 6158
Fax. 00 44 (0)207 211 6130

Relevant U.S. Case Law