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Country Summary for LIBYAN ARAB JAMAHIRIYA (LIBYA)

I.  Relevant Legislation
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II.  Regulated Cultural Property

Definitions

‘Antiquity and antiquities’ – Anything created or produced by humans related to human heritage and that is attributed to an era of more than 100 years ago.

‘Immovable antiquities’ – The remains of cities, archaeological mounds, castles, fortresses, walls, mosques, schools, religious buildings, cemeteries, and caverns, whether underground, on the surface or under regional waters, as well as landmarks with a distinctive architectural character, and historical sites and memorials related to the battles, struggles, and experiences of Libyans which are linked to the country's political, cultural, and social history.

‘Movable antiquities’ – Movable antiquities that are manufactured to be by their nature separate from immovable antiquities and capable of being transferred from their place without being destroyed, like statues, mosaics, potsherds, glass shards, old coins, and inscriptions, as well as some traditional crafts.
Movable antiquities are considered immovable antiquities if they are designed to serve as a part of, as a supplement to, or as an ornament to an immovable antiquity.

‘Documents’ – Texts written and inscribed on any material or object such as stone, ceramic, hides, metals, and bones, all of which is related to human civilization and experience, and includes magnetic strips, photographic negatives, manuscripts, documents, writs, accords, maps, decrees, resolutions, and printings, and other instruments and papers that are at least fifty years old.

‘Old cities, historical neighborhoods and buildings’ – An architectural entity whose parts are related or distinctive and that is free-standing or enclosed within recognized boundaries or within the walls surrounding and including residences, schools, mosques, markets, streets, and gardens, and all landmarks, memorials, and antiquities inside old neighborhoods and cities that were created one hundred years ago or more, or that have witnessed a significant historic event even if this period of time has not elapsed.

‘Competent authority’ – Scientific and technical institutions responsible for managing, regulating, caring for and protecting antiquities, museums, documents, old cities, and historical neighborhoods and buildings.

‘General People's Special Committee’ – The Committee within the General People's Committee tasked with monitoring the scientific and technical institutions responsible for managing, regulating, caring for and protecting antiquities, museums, old cities and historical buildings.   (Law No. 3, Chapt. 1)

Registry

The competent authority specifies what is considered an immovable antiquity, movable antiquity, or document, and registers those it deems fit to register as cultural property and public wealth, and maintains, monitors, regulates, and directs studies and publications about antiquities. (Law No. 3, Chapt. 3, Art. 4)

The competent department and the owners of antiquities other than the state will be notified of the decree to register immovable antiquities in order for it to be entered into the property registry. (Law No. 3, Chapt. 3, Art. 12)

If harm should come to the owner as a result of registering the immovable antiquity, he is permitted to claim from the competent authority compensation for this damage, on condition that he submits this complaint within one year. (Law No. 3, Chapt. 3, Art. 13)

 


III.  Export Restrictions
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IV.  Ownership Rights and Restrictions
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V.  Violations, Penalties and Sanctions
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VI.  International Conventions and Bilateral Agreements
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