Professional Guidelines established by
Confederation international des negociants en oeuvres d'art (CINOA)
Code of Ethics (last amended 2015)
Organization's Web Site
The art and antique dealer profession is based on very personal choices and plays an important role in our culture. There is a risk that these professions could be jeopardised by disproportionate regulation and restrictions that hinder international cultural exchanges and trade. The present code of ethics shall apply without distinction to all objects that are negotiated on the market of fine art, antiques and cultural objects. All the member associations of CINOA agree to respect and to require that their own members, "the professionals", comply with the texts of the current laws in the country or countries in which they operate and respect the guidelines stipulated below. CINOA wishes to underscore and recommend that the practice of the profession of art and antique dealer be governed by the following principles:
1.The professional in possession of an object, clearly established to have been imported illegally under applicable national law, agrees to comply with the procedures imposed by that law. In the case where the country of origin of the object is asking for its return within the legal period, the professional shall, after receiving compensation* which cannot be less than the purchase price in the case of an acquisition in good faith, permit the return to its country of origin.
* The concept of compensation can only apply if permitted under applicable national law of the professional.
2.The professional agrees to respect the laws and regulations applicable in his country on the protection of threatened or endangered species. He therefore agrees not to trade in objects that infringe the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species.
3.The professional shall take all measures necessary to detect stolen objects, and refer, among other resources, to the registers and the databases that are published for this effect and to use them judiciously.
4.The professional should under no circumstances participate in transactions which to the best of their knowledge can be linked to money-laundering operations.
5.The professional provides its customers with a guarantee of his seriousness and competence to certify the authenticity of the property sold. He must ensure that the description of the work is as precise as possible and reflects the state of his knowledge at the time of the sale. If necessary, this description must be supported by tests using relevant technology.
Voted at the General Assembly in Florence in 1987, amended in Stockholm on the 26 of June 1998 and in New York on the 11 of May 2005. Amended in Brussels on the 13 of October 2015.